Holarctic species is widespread throughout Europe (Cranston et al.
1987, Schaffner et al. 2001) and may also be found in North Africa
and Asia Minor (Becker et al. 2003).
sites are situated in open landscapes, in the undergrowth or under
forest canopy; aquatic stages develop in ditches, in swampy woodlands
with high level of ground water, in pools, flooded meadows or shallow
backwaters (Peus 1929, Mihályi 1959, Cranston et al. 1987,
Schaffner et al. 2001, Becker et al. 2003), often lined with leaf
detritus, upon which the larvae feed (Cranston et al. 1987).
species is univoltine; eggs are laid in dried-up hollows during
the spring and summer and hatch when flooded later in the year;
first instar larvae have been observed in every month between October
and June, last instar larvae occur from December onwards (Marshall
1938). Larvae tolerate low water temperatures and may survive under
ice canopy for a long time; they even resist freezing of the breeding
site, but only for a few hours (Mohrig 1969). The species may also
hibernate in the egg stage (Trpiš 1962).
fly from the end of March or April till June or July (Trpiš
1962, Mohrig 1969, Cranston et al. 1987). Females feed outdoors
on birds, mammals, and humans, but do not enter buildings to bite
(Mohrig 1969, Cranston et al. 1987, Schaffner et al. 2001). They
mainly attack at dusk and during the night, and are often responsible
to strong nuisances in proximity to their original breeding sites;
no parasitic disease transmission has been assigned to this species
at present (Schaffner et al. 2001).