Holarctic species shows a wide distribution area, extending throughout
Europe (except the Iberian Peninsula) Asia Minor, the Middle East,
Siberia and North America (Mohrig 1969, Cranston et al. 1987, Schaffner
et al. 2001, Becker et al. 2003).
communis is a sylvatic species (Mohrig 1969, Briegel 1973,
Schaffner et al. 2001). Its breeding places are primarily found
in pine forests and are less abundant in deciduous woods (Rettich
et al. 1978). They include ponds, ditches, mires, peat bogs or rock
pools (Schaffner et al. 2001) in lowlands or in mountainous regions
(Mihályi 1959), mainly free of vegetation with a dense layer
of leaf litter (Becker et al. 2003). Larvae are encountered from
more or less shaded habitats (Cranston et al. 1987) and seem to
prefer acidic water (Mohrig 1969, Becker et al. 2003).
communis shows one generation per year (Mohrig 1969, Cranston
et al. 1987). Eggs are laid on the dry ground, under leaf litter
or in mosses (Mohrig 1969). In southern countries larvae already
hatch in autumn (Mohrig 1969); in northern or mountainous regions
the species overwinters in the egg stage (Schaffner et al. 2001)
and first instars hatch in late winter (Rettich et al. 1978). Hence
the species is qualified as "snow-mosquito" (Schaffner
et al. 2001). Adults are present in spring and summer (Mohrig 1969,
Rettich et al. 1978, Schaffner et al. 2001).
feed on birds and mammals, including humans (Cranston et al. 1987,
Schaffner et al. 2001). They primarily attack at dawn or at dusk,
and even during daytime in dense forests (Mohrig 1969, Becker et
al. 2003). They seldom leave the forest and enter dwellings, but
can scatter up to 23 km; some females have been found to be naturally
infected by several viruses such as Batai and Inkoo, as well as
by Tularaemia; in laboratory conditions it is able to transmit the
Tahyna virus (Schaffner et al. 2001).