species of the family, Helicopsyche bacescui and H.
sperata, are distributed within the processed area; H.
bacescui is common in East- and South-Eastern Europe, H.
sperata is known from Switzerland and Italy (including Sicily);
three other species of the genus Helicopsyche have been recorded
from Mediterranean countries and isles (Malicky 2004). The larva
documented in this key has been collected from Wolfram Graf in Serbia
and is supposed to be H. bacescui.
of the family are easily recognised by the characteristic case,
which is helically curved like a snail-shell and built of sand grains.
Even the larval body is contorted. In contrast to other Trichoptera
species the anal claw consists of a row of short blunt teeth.
larvae of Helicopsyche can be found in hygropetric sites
in mountainous areas as well as at shores of greater lakes (Wesenberg-Lund
1943, Waringer & Graf 1997). The nutrition behaviour is supposed
to resemble the North-American species H. borealis, which
scrapes on epilithic algae (Feminella & Resh 1991, cited by
Waringer & Graf 1997).