species is distributed in Central, Western and the South-East of
Europe and adapted to cold climates; it is considered to be a relic
of the ice age (Mohrig 1969, Schaffner et al. 2001).
glaphyroptera is confided to cold fresh waters in mountainous
and forested regions (Schaffner et al. 2001, Becker et al. 2003).
Larval records refer to collections from natural habitats, such
as the watersides of ponds, spring wells, rock pools, rats, and
puddles in torrent beds, or from artificial breeding sites, including
pools, used tires, or containers made of concrete (Mohrig 1969,
Rettich et al. 1978, Schaffner et al. 2001, Becker et al. 2003).
The sites are always small and shaded, submerse vegetation is absent
or sparse; the bottom may be stony or littered with dead vegetation
(pine needles) (Schaffner et al. 2001).
species shows one or two generations per year; eggs are laid on
the water surface, stuck together in the shape of rafts; larval
stages are found at the end of spring and in summer (Rettich et
al. 1978, Schaffner et al. 2001).
were collected in June (Rettich et al. 1978). The species overwinters
as females in sheltered places (Schaffner et al. 2001, Becker et
al. 2003). According
to Schaffner et al. (2001) females probably bite birds, but not
man; a parasitic transmission involving this species has not been
recorded up to now.