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Culiseta glaphyroptera (Schiner 1864)  
Culiseta glaphyroptera.

Distribution: The species is distributed in Central, Western and the South-East of Europe and adapted to cold climates; it is considered to be a relic of the ice age (Mohrig 1969, Schaffner et al. 2001).

Habitat: Cs. glaphyroptera is confided to cold fresh waters in mountainous and forested regions (Schaffner et al. 2001, Becker et al. 2003). Larval records refer to collections from natural habitats, such as the watersides of ponds, spring wells, rock pools, rats, and puddles in torrent beds, or from artificial breeding sites, including pools, used tires, or containers made of concrete (Mohrig 1969, Rettich et al. 1978, Schaffner et al. 2001, Becker et al. 2003). The sites are always small and shaded, submerse vegetation is absent or sparse; the bottom may be stony or littered with dead vegetation (pine needles) (Schaffner et al. 2001).

Biology: The species shows one or two generations per year; eggs are laid on the water surface, stuck together in the shape of rafts; larval stages are found at the end of spring and in summer (Rettich et al. 1978, Schaffner et al. 2001).

Adults: Adults were collected in June (Rettich et al. 1978). The species overwinters as females in sheltered places (Schaffner et al. 2001, Becker et al. 2003). According to Schaffner et al. (2001) females probably bite birds, but not man; a parasitic transmission involving this species has not been recorded up to now.